Radical leftist revolutionaries overthrew Russia’s czar Nicholas II, ending centuries of Romanov rule. The Whites were loath to recognize land reforms, so didn’t convert the peasants to their cause, and were loath to recognize nationalist movements, so largely lost their support. In July two Left SR and Cheka employees, Blyumkin and Andreyev, assassinated the German ambassador, Count Mirbach. By 1922 there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from World War I and the civil war.. Operating under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky, they had a uniform agenda, albeit one that as the war continued. Or, the Constraints and Conceits of Counterfactual History, Newsreels about Russian Civil War // Net-Film Newsreels and Documentary Films Archive, 1914-1918-online. The Whites fell back eastwards to Ufa and Orenburg. 7,000,000–12,000,000 total casualties, includingcivilians and non-combatants. The smaller body (Kiev and Odessa troops) withdrew to Odessa and the Crimea, which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks during the winter of 1919–1920. Share Another reason was 9/11. The Czechs decided to ally with anti-Bolshevik forces in the hope of fighting against Germany again. In the Ural-Guryev operation of 1919–1920, the Red Turkestan Front defeated the Ural Army. Reds started their counteroffensive against Kolchak's forces at the end of April. Despite this setback, Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine. The ‘Reds’ were clustered around the capital. in Ian C. D. Moffat. The Bolsheviks saw the war as a struggle between their workers and Russia’s upper and middle classes, and as a war of socialism against international capitalism. This, combined with the creation of the Provisional All-Russian Government, saw the reduction of the Bolsheviks to most of European Russia and parts of Central Asia. Lenin personally apologized to the Germans for the assassination. More evacuations then took place: nearly 150,000 fled by sea, and the Bolsheviks shot tens of thousands of those left behind. After the capture of Tsaritsyn, Wrangel pushed towards Saratov but Trotsky, seeing the danger of the union with Kolchak, against whom the Red command was concentrating large masses of troops, repulsed his attempts with heavy losses. Western socialists had promptly arrived from France and from the UK to convince the Russians to continue the fight, but could not change the new pacifist mood of Russia. Some members of the Bolshevik central committee in Moscow were willing to give up Petrograd, but Trotsky refused to accept the loss of the city and personally organized its defenses. The Czech Legion was allowed to travel east and evacuate by sea. Pursued into the Crimea by Makhno's troops, Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea. The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years – between 1918 and 1921. In Ukraine the German-Austrian Operation Faustschlag had by April 1918 removed the Bolsheviks from Ukraine. They now came under the command of General Denikin. Viktor G. Bortnevski, "White Administration and White Terror (the Denikin Period).". The Bolsheviks worked with other socialist groups like the Mensheviks and SRs when they needed to, and turned against them when the chance was there. Russian exiles argued that, since the pre-Bolshevik governments of Russia had remained loyal to the Allies, the Allies were bound to help them. The removal of troops from the area allowed Trotsky to gain considerably more control over Siberia and by the end of the year all of Ayamsk, the Tairmur peninsula and the surrounding area.However due to the remo… The Whites were far from being a unified force. Russian exiles argued that, since the pre-Bolshevik governments of Russia had remained loyal to the Allies, the Allies were bound to help them. By the beginning of 1920 the main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia was rapidly retreating towards the Don, to Rostov. The Russian Civil War was caused by the Russian Revolution. In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force. Losing the War. Czar Alexander III issued organized violence against people of Jewish faith, and was known to rule with an iron fist. The Bolsheviks and their Left SR allies were opposed to it, but on 25 July the majority of the Soviet voted to call in the British and the Bolsheviks resigned. There was opposition to the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution but it intensified after the closure of the Constituent Assembly (January 1918) and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918). By June 1918 this force had survived great difficulties from the infamous Russian winter, fighting the ‘First Kuban Campaign’ or the ‘Ice March’, a near-continuous battle and movement against the Reds that lasted over fifty days and saw their commander Kornilov (who may have attempted a coup in 1917) killed. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries—most notably the German Revolution—contributed to the continued militarisation of Soviet society. One was Lt. Col. Bailey, who recorded a mission to Tashkent, from where the Bolsheviks forced him to flee. There were battles in Ukraine and surrounding areas between other countries over territory.  The British and French had supported Russia during World War I on a massive scale with war materials. In the field the Cheka special investigations forces, termed the Special Punitive Department of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combat of Counter-Revolution and Sabotage or Special Punitive Brigades, followed the Red Army, conducting field tribunals and summary executions of soldiers and officers who deserted, retreated from their positions or failed to display sufficient offensive zeal. Ufa was retaken on 13 March; by mid-April, the White Army stopped at the Glazov–Chistopol–Bugulma–Buguruslan–Sharlyk line. Remnants of Kolchak's army reached Transbaikalia and joined Semyonov's troops, forming the Far Eastern army. This allowed the Red Army to cross the Don River, threatening to split the Don and Volunteer Armies. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated the total number of men killed in action in the Civil War and Polish–Soviet War as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and the total number of military personnel dead from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossii) was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. Major Ewen Cameron Bruce of the British Army had volunteered to command a British tank mission assisting the White Army. Between seven and ten million had died from war, disease, and famine. Shortly before the fall of Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918, the former Tsar and his family were murdered by the Ural Soviet to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Whites. Already on the date of the Revolution, Cossack General Alexey Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region, where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. The Red 5th Army, led by the capable commander Tukhachevsky, captured Elabuga on 26 May, Sarapul on 2 June and Izevsk on the 7th and continued to push forward. They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty, which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution. , During the Red Terror, estimates of Cheka executions range from 12,733 to 1.7 million. Anti-Bolshevik forces took advantage of the chaos to coalesce here and new White armies emerged. Lenin considered it "completely certain, that the slightest aid from Finland would have determined the fate of [the city]". To do this the British, French and US landed a small expeditionary force at Murmansk and Archangel. They became known as the ‘Whites’ in contrast to the Bolsheviks' ‘Red Army’. The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война в России, tr. Only a few hundred of them reached Persia in June 1920.  The White Terror, as it would become known, killed about 300,000 people in total. Russian Civil War - Russian Civil War - Foreign intervention: The Allied governments now had to decide on their policy in the confused Russian situation. :287, Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. Their military forces, bolstered by forced conscriptions and terror as well as foreign influence, under the leadership of General Nikolai Yudenich, Admiral Alexander Kolchak and General Anton Denikin, became known as the White movement (sometimes referred to as the "White Army") and controlled significant parts of the former Russian Empire for most of the war. The Bolsheviks have consolidated their power, with the party expanding, dissidents being quelled and institutions taking shape. Bolshevik control established in a majority of the former Russian Empire, Independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Grebenkin, I.N. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his bravery during the June 1919 battle of Tsaritsyn for single-handedly storming and capturing the fortified city of Tsaritsyn, under heavy shell fire in a single tank; this led to the capture of over 40,000 prisoners. Among those campaigning for a war effort was Winston Churchill. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Lenin’s Bolsheviks. He then took Kharkov and Tsaritsyn, broke out into Ukraine, and began a general move north towards Moscow from across large parts of the south, providing the greatest threat to the Soviet capital of the war. 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