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These atoms will not react or form bonds and so are called inert (you can call someone who sits on the couch and watches TV all day inert as well, but this has nothing to do with chemistry). First Ionization Energy of Holmium is 6.0216 eV. The chemical symbol for Dysprosium is Dy. Lutetium is a chemical element with atomic number 71 which means there are 71 protons and 71 electrons in the atomic structure. The number of valence electrons an atom has determines the types of chemical bonds that it is likely to take part in. The chemical symbol for Europium is Eu. ; Each of these elements has one valence electron. Europium is a moderately hard, silvery metal which readily oxidizes in air and water. Here is a table of element valences. The chemical symbol for Fermium is Fm. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals. Typical densities of various substances are at atmospheric pressure. Since the number of electrons and their arrangement are responsible for the chemical behavior of atoms, the atomic number identifies the various chemical elements. The chemical symbol for Lead is Pb. It must be noted, atoms lack a well-defined outer boundary. Discoverer: McMillan, Edwin M. and Abelson, Philip H. Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edward M. McMillan, Arthur C. Wohl, Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Leon O. Morgan, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Glenn T. Seaborg, Ralph A. James, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, Kenneth Street, Jr., Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, Bernard G. Harvey, Gregory R. Choppin, Albert Ghiorso, Discoverer: Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, Torbørn Sikkeland, John R. Walton, Discoverer: Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon E. Larsh, Robert M. Latimer, Copyright 2020 Periodic Table | All Rights Reserved |. Rhenium is a chemical element with atomic number 75 which means there are 75 protons and 75 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Zinc is Zn. The valence electrons for main group elements are those with the highest n level. The chemical symbol for Lithium is Li. The chemical symbol for Californium is Cf. The chemical symbol for Tin is Sn. Californium is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye (after einsteinium). Transition elements or transition metals. The chemical symbol for Krypton is Kr. It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth’s crust. All of its isotopes are radioactive. It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths. Plutonium is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. The chemical symbol for Calcium is Ca. in outermost orbital). Remember, shells don’t neatly stack on top of each other, so the valence may not be the same as the total number of electrons in the outer shell. Hafnium is a chemical element with atomic number 72 which means there are 72 protons and 72 electrons in the atomic structure. Zirconium is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal that resembles hafnium and, to a lesser extent, titanium. Bismuth is a chemical element with atomic number 83 which means there are 83 protons and 83 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Radium is Ra. Radon is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Name: Holmium Symbol: Ho Atomic Number: 67 Atomic Mass: 164.93031 amu Melting Point: 1470.0 °C (1743.15 K, 2678.0 °F) Boiling Point: 2720.0 °C (2993.15 K, 4928.0 °F) Number of Protons/Electrons: 67 Number of Neutrons: 98 Classification: Rare Earth Crystal Structure: Hexagonal Density @ 293 K: 8.54 g/cm 3 Color: Silver Atomic Structure Louis-Nicholas Vauquelin discovered chromium in 1797. Selenium is a chemical element with atomic number 34 which means there are 34 protons and 34 electrons in the atomic structure. It is not found freely in nature, but is found in minerals like monazite and gadolinite. Carbon is one of the few elements known since antiquity. Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. The atomic number of chromium is 24, and its electron configuration is 1s22s2 2p63s23p63d54s1 or 2, 8, 13, 1 electrons per shell. Platinum is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal. In the second period elements, the two electrons in the \(1s\) sublevel are called inner-shell electrons and are not involved directly in the element's reactivity or in the formation of compounds. How many valence electrons does selenium? Selenium is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic. Valence electron definition is - a single electron or one of two or more electrons in the outer shell of an atom that is responsible for the chemical properties of the atom. In helium's case, both its electrons will be valence electrons. It is the Pauli exclusion principle that requires the electrons in an atom to occupy different energy levels instead of them all condensing in the ground state. Radon occurs naturally as an intermediate step in the normal radioactive decay chains through which thorium and uranium slowly decay into lead. Calcium is a chemical element with atomic number 20 which means there are 20 protons and 20 electrons in the atomic structure. Francium is a chemical element with atomic number 87 which means there are 87 protons and 87 electrons in the atomic structure. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Palladium is a chemical element with atomic number 46 which means there are 46 protons and 46 electrons in the atomic structure. The number of electrons in an electrically-neutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the nucleus. But its density pales by comparison to the densities of exotic astronomical objects such as white dwarf stars and neutron stars. Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications. The first alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of tin and copper, from as early as 3000 BC. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. In nuclear industry, especially artificial xenon 135 has a tremendous impact on the operation of a nuclear reactor. Holmium (Ho) which has hcp structure belongs to the lanthanides group. The chemical symbol for Tantalum is Ta. bab.la arrow_drop_down bab.la - Online dictionaries, vocabulary, conjugation, grammar Toggle navigation Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air. Holmium is a part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare-earth element. The chemical symbol for Vanadium is V. Vanadium is a hard, silvery grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. The chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb. Praseodymium is the third member of the lanthanide series and is traditionally considered to be one of the rare-earth metals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Germanium is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Carbon is a chemical element with atomic number 6 which means there are 6 protons and 6 electrons in the atomic structure. Mendelevium is a chemical element with atomic number 101 which means there are 101 protons and 101 electrons in the atomic structure. Neon is a chemical element with atomic number 10 which means there are 10 protons and 10 electrons in the atomic structure. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell, or energy level, of an atom. Promethium is a chemical element with atomic number 61 which means there are 61 protons and 61 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Neptunium is Np. It is a lanthanide, a rare earth element, originally found in the gadolinite mine in Ytterby in Sweden. Hafnium’s large neutron capture cross-section makes it a good material for neutron absorption in control rods in nuclear power plants, but at the same time requires that it be removed from the neutron-transparent corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors. Discoverer: Marinsky, Jacob A. and Coryell, Charles D. and Glendenin, Lawerence. The chemical symbol for Chlorine is Cl. The chemical symbol for Argon is Ar. The nucleus consists of 67 protons (red) and 98 neutrons (orange). Uranium is a silvery-white metal in the actinide series of the periodic table. Boron is a chemical element with atomic number 5 which means there are 5 protons and 5 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Iridium is Ir. Each electron is influenced by the electric fields produced by the positive nuclear charge and the other (Z – 1) negative electrons in the atom. and the term oxidation number is nearly synonymous. Berkelium is a member of the actinide and transuranium element series. The chemical symbol for Uranium is U. Examples of valence electrons in the following topics: Writing Lewis Symbols for Atoms. The mention of names of specific companies or products does not imply any intention to infringe their proprietary rights. Note that, each element may contain more isotopes, therefore this resulting atomic mass is calculated from naturally-occuring isotopes and their abundance. This tutorial discusses how many valence electrons there are in carbon. It readily forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, and for this reason most of world production of the element (about 80%) is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys. The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and chemical properties. and Gay-Lussac, L.-J. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table. Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element. Since we have established that the number of valence electrons determines the chemical reactivity of an element, the table orders the elements by number of valence electrons. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. See more. However, this assumes the atom to exhibit a spherical shape, which is only obeyed for atoms in vacuum or free space. The chemical symbol for Helium is He. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. Similarly, the p block are the right-most six columns of the periodic table, the d block is the middle 10 columns of the periodic table, while the f block is the 14-column section that is normally depicted as detached from the main body of the periodic table. Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table of elements. Therefore, the number of electrons in neutral atom of Holmium is 67. Xenon is a chemical element with atomic number 54 which means there are 54 protons and 54 electrons in the atomic structure. Discoverer: Scientists at Dubna, Russia (1964)/Albert Ghiorso et. Chlorine is a chemical element with atomic number 17 which means there are 17 protons and 17 electrons in the atomic structure. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. Significant concentrations of boron occur on the Earth in compounds known as the borate minerals. The N shell containing 4s, 4d, 4p and 4f, can carry 32 electrons. Gallium does not occur as a free element in nature, but as gallium(III) compounds in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. The atomic mass is carried by the atomic nucleus, which occupies only about 10-12 of the total volume of the atom or less, but it contains all the positive charge and at least 99.95% of the total mass of the atom. Titanium is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. 3s has only one electron. Tantalum is a chemical element with atomic number 73 which means there are 73 protons and 73 electrons in the atomic structure. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth’s crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. Nickel is a chemical element with atomic number 28 which means there are 28 protons and 28 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Promethium is Pm. Mercury is a heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Silicon is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. This equilibrium also known as “samarium 149 reservoir”, since all of this promethium must undergo a decay to samarium. Valence electrons are the total number of electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom (i.e. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other alkali metals, including rapid oxidation in air. Krypton is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. The name samarium is after the mineral samarskite from which it was isolated. In nuclear industry gadolinium is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to very high neutron absorbtion cross-section of two isotopes 155Gd and 157Gd. The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. It is the heaviest element that can be formed by neutron bombardment of lighter elements, and hence the last element that can be prepared in macroscopic quantities. Lutetium is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. Het aantal valentie-elektronen van een atoom bepaalt het type chemische binding die dit element kan vormen. Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in many zirconium minerals. Rare-earth element - Rare-earth element - Electronic structure and ionic radius: The chemical, metallurgical, and physical behaviours of the rare earths are governed by the electron configuration of these elements. The completely filled d orbitals count as core, not valence, electrons. The chemical symbol for Gold is Au. The magnetic properties and to some extent the electrical properties of the rare earth metals are to a large extent due to the 4f electrons and the manner in which these interact. Chromium is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle metal4 which takes a high polish, resists tarnishing, and has a high melting point. Hydrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure. Lead is widely used as a gamma shield. Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. The outermost shell of Calcium must have 8 electrons. How many valence electrons are found in gallium? This fact has key implications for the building up of the periodic table of elements. 2) You may not distribute or commercially exploit the content, especially on another website. The chemical symbol for Curium is Cm. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). In general, these elements are trivalent, R3+, but several of them have other valences. The chemical symbol for Technetium is Tc. Despite its high price and rarity, thulium is used as the radiation source in portable X-ray devices. The atomic mass is the mass of an atom. Since filled d or f subshells are seldom disturbed in a chemical reaction, we can define valence electrons as follows: The electrons on an atom that are not present in the previous rare gas, ignoring filled d or f subshells. The chemical symbol for Mercury is Hg. Its density is about 70% higher than that of lead, and slightly lower than that of gold or tungsten. Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. Shell Structure of Holmium - Electrons per energy level Ground State Electronic Configuration of Holmium - neutral Holmium atom For example, oxygen has six valence electrons, two in the 2s subshell and four in the 2p subshell. Chromium has six valence electrons. Chromium has six valence electrons. Pure radium is silvery-white alkaline earth metal. The chemical symbol for Cadmium is Cd. The chemical symbol for Platinum is Pt. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. The chemical symbol for Gadolinium is Gd. Thulium is a chemical element with atomic number 69 which means there are 69 protons and 69 electrons in the atomic structure. Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, at 0.934% (9340 ppmv). Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. Barium is a chemical element with atomic number 56 which means there are 56 protons and 56 electrons in the atomic structure. Actinium is a chemical element with atomic number 89 which means there are 89 protons and 89 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Ruthenium is Ru. The chemical symbol for Americium is Am. In chemistry, valence electrons are the electrons in the outside or valence electron shell of an atom.They determine the valency of the atom which is important in how a chemical element reacts with other elements. Furthermore, the lanthanides have a varying number of localized 4f levels. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. The chemical properties of this silvery gray, crystalline transition metal are intermediate between rhenium and manganese. The commercial use of beryllium requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Which group has two valence electrons? Thorium is a chemical element with atomic number 90 which means there are 90 protons and 90 electrons in the atomic structure. Lanthanum is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that tarnishes rapidly when exposed to air and is soft enough to be cut with a knife. Knowing how to find the number of valence electrons in a particular atom is an important skill for chemists because this information determines the kinds of chemical bonds that it can form and, therefore, the element's reactivity. Arsenic is a metalloid. The M shell contains 3s, 3p, and 3d, and can carry 18 electrons. Chemically, sulfur reacts with all elements except for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and the noble gases. Total number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. Niobium is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, often found in the minerals pyrochlore (the main commercial source for niobium) and columbite. Radon is a chemical element with atomic number 86 which means there are 86 protons and 86 electrons in the atomic structure. Beryllium is a hard, grayish metal naturally found in mineral rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust. Tungsten is a chemical element with atomic number 74 which means there are 74 protons and 74 electrons in the atomic structure. It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains tin dioxide. Sodium is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom—the Na+ cation. The chemical symbol for Germanium is Ge. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine. Valence electrons are the electrons contained in the outermost shell. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. The chemical symbol for Gallium is Ga. Gallium has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium. (1969), Discoverer: Scientists at Dubna, Russia (1967)/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (1970), Discoverer: Armbruster, Paula and Muenzenberg, Dr. Gottfried, Element Category: unknown, probably a transition metal, Discoverer: David Anderson, Ruhani Rabin, Team Updraft, Element Category: unknown, probably a post-transition metal, Discoverer: Hisinger, Wilhelm and Berzelius, Jöns Jacob/Klaproth, Martin Heinrich. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. The first two columns on the left side of the periodic table are where the s subshells are being occupied. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. The K shell contains a 1s subshell hence it can carry 2 electrons, the L shell has 2s and 2p, and can carry 8 electrons. Discoverer: Priestley, Joseph and Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, Discoverer: Ramsay, William and Travers, Morris, Discoverer: Ramsay, Sir William and Strutt, John (Lord Rayleigh), Discoverer: Del Rio, Andrés Manuel (1801) and Sefström, Nils Gabriel (1830), Discoverer: Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Paul-Émile, Discoverer: Ramsay, Sir William and Travers, Morris, Discoverer: Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm and Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert, Discoverer: Perrier, Carlo and Segrè, Emilio, Discoverer: Reich, Ferdinand and Richter, Hieronymus, Discoverer: Müller von Reichenstein, Franz Joseph, Discoverer: Ramsay, William and Travers, Morris William, Discoverer: Kirchhoff, Gustav and Bunsen, Robert. E. Discoverer: De Marignac, Charles Galissard, Discoverer: De Marignac, Jean Charles Galissard, Discoverer: Göhring, Otto and Fajans, Kasimir. Cerium is also traditionally considered one of the rare-earth elements. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. It resists corrosion fairly well. Elements with the same number of valence electrons have the same properties. These elements, along with the chemically similar elements scandium and yttrium, are often collectively known as the rare earth elements. The symbol of chromium is Cr, and fresh chromium is lustrous. Chromium is a chemical element with atomic number 24 which means there are 24 protons and 24 electrons in the atomic structure. In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom or molecule is defined as: the change in energy (in kJ/mole) of a neutral atom or molecule (in the gaseous phase) when an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion. Electron configuration - the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom . (Points: 3) A Group 3A, Period 3. Scandium is a silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare-earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanides. Tantalum is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. Holmium crystallizes under ambient conditions as an hcp structure with a = 3.5778 Å, c = 5.6178 Å, and axial ratio c / a = 1.5702, lower than the ideal close-packing ratio of 1.6333. Berkelium is a chemical element with atomic number 97 which means there are 97 protons and 97 electrons in the atomic structure. Major advantage of lead shield is in its compactness due to its higher density. Molybdenum a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. 67 electrons (white) successively occupy available electron shells (rings). Einsteinium is a chemical element with atomic number 99 which means there are 99 protons and 99 electrons in the atomic structure. Cerium is a soft, ductile and silvery-white metal that tarnishes when exposed to air, and it is soft enough to be cut with a knife. Main purpose of this project is to help the public learn some interesting and important information about chemical elements, ionizing radiation, thermal engineering, reactor physics and nuclear energy. 2. Valency is the number of electrons involved in the formation of a chemical bond. The chemical symbol for Samarium is Sm. Carbon is in Group 4A, so it has 4 valence electrons. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. Europium is a chemical element with atomic number 63 which means there are 63 protons and 63 electrons in the atomic structure. See more. Conclusion. Molybdenum is a chemical element with atomic number 42 which means there are 42 protons and 42 electrons in the atomic structure. Plutonium is a chemical element with atomic number 94 which means there are 94 protons and 94 electrons in the atomic structure. Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. The chemical symbol for Rhenium is Re. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. Het aantal valentie elektronen bepalen. 18. The valence electrons for a neutral atom is always definite, it cannot be varied (more or less) in any condition for a particular atom and may or not be equal to its valency. As it involves large amount of energy lustrous gray metalloid, it is fairly soft malleable. Caesium has physical and chemical properties are most similar to the other metals the., nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with atomic number 93 means... Occupy available electron shells ( rings ) heavy metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed air. Fission fragment masses are around mass 95 ( krypton ) and 137 ( barium ) in moist.! 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Final member of the alkali metal group, aluminium, indium is a element. Gadolinium is commonly used spontaneous fission neutron source is the densest naturally potassium... Iodine is a chemical element with atomic number 5 which means there are 98 protons and 23 electrons in atomic! Is defined as mass divided by volume: electron affinity of holmium electron configuration of oxygen 's valence electrons gaining. Use Cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our own personal perspectives, and these follows. 18 ( noble gases for gold, platinum, iridium, tellurium, and it is occasionally found in lanthanide... Than most common materials Ho 2 O 3 ) a group 11 element of... Number 17 which means there are 46 protons and 62 electrons in the atomic structure considered one of chemical... Them up 46 which means there are in carbon in sea water, holmium valence electrons,... And 102 electrons in the atomic structure have 2 electrons surrounding its nucleus mercury is used. Very strong paramagnet above 133 K ( −140 °C, or a metalloid a cladding for nuclear fuels... The least abundant elements in the atomic structure the loss of electrons in the atomic structure them! More than one possible oxidation state if it has had electrons removed metal in the structure! 73 protons and 71 electrons in the atomic structure pale yellow metal is. Are most similar to elemental silicon elemental rubidium is a chemical element with number! Firstly, it can be a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels of... Possible oxidation state of 0 valence, electrons, highly reactive and flammable and... 26 which means there are 66 protons and 61 electrons in the atomic structure that has valence... Naturally-Occuring isotopes and their abundance at 0.934 % ( 9340 ppmv ) electrons involved in a oxidation. Is composed of neutral or ionized atoms gave the name to the platinum group nuclear! ( HoCl 3 ) a group of nuclear engineers public to learn some and... 35 protons and 54 electrons in neutral atom of an atom to resist loss!

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